French History

French History
  • Prehistory
  • Ancient History
  • The Middle Ages
  • Hundred Years' War
  • The Black Death
  • Joan of Arc
  • The Renaissance
  • The 17th century
  • The French Revolution
  • The Era of Napoleon
  • The late 19th century
  • The early 20th century
  • The Fifth Republic

Late 19th Century France

In 1870, Prussian prime minister, Otto von Bismarck waged war on France, capturing Paris and claiming other regions of French territory. The French troops proved no match to the well trained and large Prussian army, forcing Napoleon III to surrender and go into exile.

A year later the war with Germany had ended and the Third Republic emerged, signaling the final days of the monarchy in France. Struggles between the Monarchists and the Republicans continued until finally in 1877 a move by the Royalists to replace the president with a king was blocked.

This was a time of industrial expansion as well as of extensive cultural contributions, especially in the literary and artistic fields. The impressionist painters and later the avant-garde movement began in France, making Paris the art center of the world.