- Prehistory and Protohistory
- Ancient History
- From Carthage to Roman Hispania
- Visigothic Spain
- Muslim Spain and the Reconquest
- Lower Middle Ages
- Imperial Spain
- Discovery of the Americas
- 18th Century Spain
- Effects of the French Revolution
- The Second Republic and Civil War
- Restoration to Democratic Rule
Lower Middle Ages
Spain now consisted of two main areas, the west and the east, forming the two great kingdoms of Castile and Aragon.
The growing economic complexity in Castile in the period between 1248 and 1369, derived from the trade and wool exports from Seville to Flanders initiated serious conflicts between the nobility, beneficiary of these exports, and the Crown and cities. This later led to a civil war during the reign of Pedro I, the Cruel, 1350 to 1369. Aragon continued to expand towards the Mediterranean , in accordance with Catalan commercial interests ( Greece , Sardinia ).
From 1369 through to 1412, the house of Trastamara occupied both thrones, after Enrique de Trastamara's triumph in the Castellan civil war in 1369. In 1412 Ferdinand, son of King John II of Aragon is elected monarch of Aragon (Caspe commitment 1412).