Spanish History

Spanish History
  • Prehistory and Protohistory
  • Ancient History
  • From Carthage to Roman Hispania
  • Visigothic Spain
  • Muslim Spain and the Reconquest
  • Lower Middle Ages
  • Imperial Spain
  • Discovery of the Americas
  • 18th Century Spain
  • Effects of the French Revolution
  • The Second Republic and Civil War
  • Restoration to Democratic Rule

The Second Republic and Civil War

Spain remained neutral in the First World War and at first the unprecedented demand for its products led to a rapid economic boom. However rising prices led to inflation and this coupled with the waning European market soon produced more and more instability and finally the General Parliamentary Assembly held in Barcelona in 1917, decided to introduce constitutional reforms, as well as call for a national strike.

The economical crisis of the early 1920s led the country to the brink of civil war, and General Primo de Ribera led a military coup in 1923, establishing a military dictatorate that was to last until 1930. Municipal Elections in 1931 saw a triumph for the political left, and in light of the Monarchy's heavy defeat, King Alphonse XIII left the country. Thus the Second Republic was established in April 14th.

The Second Republic held out for five conflict-ridden years, encountering trouble on political, economic and social fronts, which ended in difference of opinions with two defined tendencies. Uneasiness brewed in the air as both sides became increasingly violent and finally the climax was reached on July 18th 1936 with a military uprising which turned into a tragic civil war, known as the Spanish Civil War, that did not end until three years later in 1939.