- Pre-Hispanic Mexico
- Pre-Classical Period
- Classical Period
- Post-Classical Period
- Spanish Conquest and Colonial Period
- Towards Independence
- War with the U.S. and Recolonization Attempts
- The Mexican Revolution
- The Zapatista Movement
- Mexico Today
After Díaz was forced to resign in 1911, another period of turmoil and disorder followed. Madero was elected president but toppled by rebel leaders, Emiliano Zapata, Francisco Pancho Villa and Victoriano Huerta, who alternately conspired and plotted, preventing any stable, independent sort of government to be established. This civil war lasted for 10 years, taking many Mexican lives. Finally it ended and Mexicans focused on rebuilding a sound political structure for their country.
The National Revolutionary party (today known as the Party of the Institutionalized Revolution – PRI) was founded in 1929 and came into power in 1934 with a land redistribution and nationalization program and reforms for reducing illiteracy levels.
In the late 70’s, the oil boom increased the country’s oil revenues and had a positive effect on the economy, but the slump in the 80’s in world oil prices led to a devaluation of the peso and the nationalization of banks, resulting in Mexico’s worst recession in decades. In the 90’s many factors changed the course of Mexico’s faltering economy. Privatization of industries, foreign investment and debt relief led to a turn around in circumstances. In 1994, Mexico signed the NAFTA agreement together with the US and Canada, creating a North American free-trade zone.